Machine repeats, Human creates



How people see

What you see isn’t what your brain gets

What you think people are going to see on your webpage may not be what they do see.It might depend on their background knowledge,familiarity with what they are looking at,and expectations.

You might be able to persuade people to see thing in a certain way,depending on how they are presented.

Periphral vision is used more than central vision to get the gist of what you see.

If you want users to concentrate on a certain part of the screen,don’t put animation or blinking elements in their peripheral vision

Periphral vision:边缘视觉 get the gist of:获取要义

People identify objects by recognizing patterns

Use pattens as much as possible since people will automatically be looking for them.Use grouping and white space to create patterns.

Blederman's geons

There’s a special part of the brain just for recognizing faces

People recognize and react to faces on Web pages faster than anything else on the page(at least by those who are not autistic).

fusiform face area (FFA):纺锤体(脸部区域) autism:孤独症 morph:在屏幕上 mannequin:人体模型(服装店放的)

People imagine objects tilted and at a sight angle above.

People recoginze a drawing or object faster and remember it better if it’s shown in the canonical perspective.

canonical perspective:从规范的角度看 takeaways:外卖品

People scan screens based on past experience and expectations.

Put the most important information(or things you want to people focus on)in the top third of the screen or in the middle.

People see cues that tell them what to do with an object.

If you want people to take action on an object,thether in real life or on a computer screen,you need to make sure that they can easily perceive,figure out,and interpret what the object is and what they can and should do with it.

Avoid providing incorrect affordance cues.

Rethink hover cues if you are designing for a device that uses touch rather than a pointing device.

cues:these cues are called _affordances_ affordance:功能可见性,自解释性 perceive:觉察,感觉,理解,认知

People can miss changes in their visual fields.

If you are paying attention to one thing, and you don’t expect changes to appear,then you can easily miss changes.

If you want to be sure that people notice a change in their visual fields,add additional visual cues(such as blinking)or auditory cues(such as beap).


People believe that things that are close together belong together.

Sometimes changing the spacing is sufficient,and you will be reducing the visual noise of the page.

Red and blue together are hard on the eyes.

recess:休息,凹处 recessed:嵌壁式的 chromstereopsis:彩色的立体视觉

9% men and 4% women are color-blind.

Avoid red,green and blue(around them).

misnomer:用词不当 decipher:密电译文(n)译解(vt) camouflage:伪装,掩饰

Check before your color taste

The meaning of colors vary by culture.

agitate:摇动 agitated:激动的(不安) soothing:抚慰的,使人安心的

Data visualization

how people read

It’s myth that captal letters are inerently hard to read.

saccade and fixation:眼睛飞快地扫视和定影

Reading and comprehending are two different things.

Reading is all about anticipating the next word.

Don’t assume that people will remember specific info in what they read.

Provide a meaningful title or headline.

The Flesch-Kincaid Readability Formula:206.835 - 1.015(total words/total sentences) - 84.6(total syllables/total words) syllable:音节

Pattern recogniting helps people identify letters in different fonts.

Unusual or overly decorative fonts can interfere with pattern recognition and slow down reading.

Font size matters.

Large x-heights can make a font look larger.

Reading a computer screen is hrader than reading paper.

Black text on a white background is easiest to read.

People read faster with a longer line length,but they perfer a shorter line length.

Use a longer line length(100 characters per line) if reading is an issue,vesvus.


how people remember

memory is limited.")Short-term memory is limited.

Stress impairs working memory.

Working memory is sensitive to interference – too much sensory input will prevent them from focusing attention.

People remember only four items at once.

magic number:4

People have to use information to make it stick.

How do people move things from working memory into long-term memory?There are basically two ways:repeat it a lot,or connect it to sth they already know.

The head is a schema ,so is eye.People use schema (plural for schema) to store information in long-tern memory and to retrieve it.

If people already have a shcema that relates to information that you are providing,make sure you point out what that schema is.It will be easier for them to learn and remember the information if they can plug it into an existing schema.

It’s easier to recognize information than recall it.

Recognition makes use of context and context helps you remember.

Inclusion errors

Memory takes a lot of mental resources.

Recency Effect:近因效应 Suffix Effect:附加效应

Information in the middle of a presentation will be the least likely to be remembered.

People reconstruct memory each time they remember them.

aloof:冷淡的 testimonies:见证,证据 grain of salt:有保留的

The later experience has changed your memory

It’s a good thing that people forget.

Design with forgetting in mind.If some information is really important,don’t rely on people to remember it.Provide it for them in your design,or have a way for them to easily look it up.


The most vivid memories are wrong.

traumatic:创伤的,使人不快的 flashbulb memory

If you know that someone had a dramatic or traumatic experience,you need to understand two things:1.They will be convinced that what they remember is true and 2.It’s not exactly true!

how people think

People process information better in bite-sized chunks.

Progressive Disclosure 《Don't make me think》

If you have to make a trade-off on clicks versus thinking,use more clicks and less thinking.

Some types of mental processing are more challenging than others.

All “loads” are not equal:cognitive,visual,motor.

When you design a product, remember that making people think or remember (cognitive load) requires the most mental resources.

wander 30% of the time.")Minds wander 30% of the time.

mind wander != daydream

People like Web surfing because it grabs onto mind wandering (hyper links).

The more uncertain people are, the more they defend thier ideas.

Cognitive dissonance:认知不一致 tenable: 站得住脚的

Don’t speed a lot of time trying to change someone’s ingrained(根深蒂固的) beliefs.

People create mental models.

People interact with conceptual models.

One of the best purposes of training on a new pruduct is to adjust the audiences mental model to fit to the conceptual model of the product.

The secret to designing an intuitive user experience is making sure that the conceptual model of your product matches as much as possible,the mental models of your audience.If you get it right,you will have created a positive and useful experience.

If you have a brand new product that you know will not match anyone’s mental model, you will need to provide training to prepare people to create a new mental model.

People process information best in story form.

rivet:固定 causation:原因,因果关系

People learn best from examples.

Don’t just tell people what to do ,show them.

People are driven to create categories.

People like to put things into categories.

Time is relative.

The more mental processing you do,the more time you think has elapsed.

Always provide progress indicates so people know how much time sth is going to take.

There are four ways to be creative.




Thomas Edison

Therapeutic A-ha Moment


Newton&the apple

Artists Musicians


  1. Deliberate & Cognitive Creativity
    Pay focused attention
    Make connections ammong bits of information you’ve stored in other parts of your brain.

  2. Deliberate & Emotional Creativity

  3. Spontaneous & Cognitive Creativiy
    ganglia:神经节 dopamine:多巴胺

  4. Spontaneous & Emotional Creativity
    amygdala:扁桃体 epiphany:主显节

Remember that your own creative process for design follows these same rules.Allow yourself time to work on a creative design solution and when you are stuck,sleep on it.

People can be in a flow state.


If you’re trying to design for,or induce,a flow state (for example,you are a game designer)
1.Give people contol over their actions during the activity.
2.Break up the difficulty into stages to feel that the current goal is challenging,yet achievable.
3.Give constant feedback.
4.Minimize distractions

Culture affect how people think

Be careful of overgeneralizing.